Former opposition leader Tzipi Livni says she is leaving the Knesset but "not political life".
Tzipi Livni, the former head of Israel's biggest opposition party Kadima, has resigned from parliament, a month after she lost a primary battle for leadership of the centre-right party.
Speculation about Livni's political future had swirled after she suffered defeat at the hands of her challenger Shaul Mofaz in elections held March 28. Mofaz won 61.7 per cent of the vote.
Her widely expected announcement came as Israel waits to hear the official date for general elections which are to be brought forward from October 2013 and could be held as early as August this year.
Kadima, which won the most parliamentary seats in the 2009 elections but failed to form a government, looks set to do badly in the upcoming vote, with opinion polls suggesting it could lose at least half its seats.
In her resignation speech, Livni, 53, warned Israel was sitting "on a volcano".
'Israel in danger'
"The international clock is ticking and the existence of Israel as a Jewish and democratic state is in danger," Livni said.
"For years, Israeli leaders have been burying their heads in the sand, occupying themselves with political exercises and spin and in that time the threat to Israel has only grown."
She has been strongly critical of Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu and his right-wing coalition government, and said she had no regrets about her efforts to revive peace talks with the Palestinians.
Livni has not said what she will do next, but hinted she might remain in politics in some capacity.
"At this stage I am leaving the Knesset, but I'm not leaving political life," she said.
Livni is a lawyer by training and became head of Kadima after its former leader Ehud Olmert resigned in the face of corruption charges.
A mother of two, she hails from a family of nationalists and began her political career in the Likud party now led by Netanyahu, leaving it along with then-prime minister Ariel Sharon for the newly formed Kadima.