European Central Bank President Mario Draghi held talks with Pope Francis in a private audience on Saturday, the Vatican said.
The Vatican did not say what the two discussed but the talks are likely to have centred on the global and European economy.
Since his election in March, Francis has severely criticised the global economic system.
Last month, during a visit to Sardinia, he said it could not be based on a "god called money". He has also called on governments to do more to create jobs.
Draghi was governor of the Bank of Italy from 2006 until he became ECB head in 2011.