Naturally, it has also been at the forefront of sweeping reforms to improve life for farm workers — the backbone of the state's economy.
Working long and hard hours in fields, groves, orchards, and warehouses, these individuals are the first to touch our food; they are also the first to suffer the devastating effects of the pesticides so many companies refuse to stop using.
In 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended the banning of chlorpyrifos, a pesticide widely used to kill insects on grapes, almonds, walnuts, oranges, and other crops in California's agricultural Mecca — Central Valley. A growing body of research links chlorpyrifos to a number of chronic health conditions, including asthma and autism. Many of those exposed to the pesticide, or who live in areas that are in close proximity to fields where it is heavily sprayed, suffer from painful skin irritations, vomiting, and debilitating headaches.
However, despite strong signs that chlorpyrifos is dangerous to human health, President Donald Trump's administration has decided to reverse the Obama-era ban, rejecting years of scientific study and evidence in favor of making business easier for the heads of agricultural companies, who will never have to work in the fields from which they profit.
"We're very heavily regulated," Bob Blakely, vice-president of Tulare County industry group California Citrus Mutual, told The Guardian. "I'd be more concerned about children not eating fresh fruits and vegetables."
However, while Blakely is concerned about children not getting their five-a-day, he seems to have overlooked the struggles of children growing up in communities near his company's agricultural empire, three hours north of Los Angeles.
The Guardian reported that more than a dozen Tulare Latino residents came to them with stories of pesticide poisoning from either direct contact by working in the fields or from drifts carried by wind into surrounding residential areas. Parents complained that their children were vomiting, consistently dizzy, and struggling to focus in school because of their exposure to chlorpyrifos.
In a story by The Washington Post, grandmother Domitila Lemus recalled a particularly disturbing incident after a pesticide spray drifted over elementary students at recess, one of which was her 8-year-old granddaughter.
"They were out of breath. Some were throwing up. The children had teary eyes … It’s a strong smell that gets into your head and hurts your brain.”
Zenaida Munoz, another resident of Tulare County, told The Guardian that she used to walk amongst the orange groves for exercise when she was pregnant. After she gave birth to her son, who is now 9 years old, she said she was in despair once she found that he had difficulty speaking, as well as severe behavioral problems. He was eventually diagnosed with autism.
According to a University of California at Davis study, pregnant women living near fields sprayed with chlorpyrifos are at increased risk of giving birth to a child with autism. Researchers at Columbia and UC Berkeley discovered that low to moderate levels of pesticide exposure during pregnancy coincide with lower IQs and memory problems. Berkeley has also raised concern about the link between pesticides and reduced breathing capacity, and a study that spanned universities across the country found evidence that it negatively impacted fertility.
The use of chlorpyrifos has also taken on an edge of racism and classism, as it disproportionately effects Latino communities and people living in poverty. Tulare County and the surrounding Central Valley region have the highest poverty rate in California and the worst air pollution in the country. State data reveals that Latino children are 91 percent more likely to live in or nearby areas where pesticides are used.
“There’s a sense of helplessness,” Luis Medellin, a 30-year-old dairy worker in the small Tulare town of Lindsay, told The Guardian. “I’m being poisoned and I can’t do anything about it. It’s like a slow death.”
A study conducted in 2004 and 2005 found that the amount of chlorpyrifos in Lindsay was 11 percent above levels the EPA considered acceptable for daily exposure for children. The pesticide was found in three-quarters of the town's air samples.
“Farmers in about 100 countries rely on the effectiveness of chlorpyrifos to protect more than 50 crops,” Dow AgroSciences wrote in a statement to The Guardian.
They are responsible for the manufacturing of chlorpyrifos under the name Lorsban and claim that the “authorized uses” of the chemical offer “wide margins of protection for human health and safety."
Their statement echoes that of Trump-appointed EPA Chief Scott Pruitt, who said in a statement last month in support of reversing the ban:
"We need to provide regulatory certainty to the thousands of American farms that rely on chlorpyrifos, while still protecting human health and the environment. By reversing the previous administration’s steps to ban one of the most widely used pesticides in the world, we are returning to using sound science in decision-making — rather than predetermined results.”
Pruitt, who has a friendly relationship with corporate America, cannot be relied upon to act in the interest of America's most vulnerable, so some are looking to California to take a stand.
State officials are indeed investigating the use of chlorpyrifos to see if additional restrictions should be put in place, but a spokesperson for the state's Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR) noted that it is different than "an all-out ban." Without the protection of state agencies and the current White House, activists and advocates for farm workers rights and the health and safety of Latino communities are back to fighting a battle they thought they had won.
“It was pain in my heart,” Amy Huerta, who grew up in a trailer park in Lindsay and was frequently exposed to drifts, told The Guardian. “Now we have to start all over again.”